In Vietnam, mainly abalone mushrooms grow wild and has many names: oyster mushrooms, white fungus (by invoking the North), chewy mushrooms (by invoking the South). Abalone mushroom fungus heading heterotrophic, saprophytic life, destruction and greed sugar timber. Vietnam is growing at about 20 years, in many different materials, abalone mushrooms are growing. According to research findings from functional departments in various localities, abalone mushrooms grown on straw, bagasse, sawdust … all biological efficiency (fresh mushrooms dry material weight) high.
Abalone mushroom cultivation techniques on coir dust is used in islet Tac Cau (An Binh commune, Chau Thanh district, Kien Giang province) since the beginning of 2006. This technique not only contribute to resolving the status of textile dust coconut cause environmental pollution but also bring considerable income, improve people’s lives. Abalone mushroom planting model on coir dust is being replicated.
Abalone mushrooms are easy to grow fungus, high yield, good quality, there are many precious properties. Calculate the nutritional composition, abalone mushrooms are high in sugar is higher than the mushrooms, mushrooms, shiitake. Nor lose abalone mushroom fungi on the protein, minerals. In terms of energy, abalone mushrooms energy supply at a minimum, lower than shiitake, equivalent mushrooms and mushrooms, are suitable for dieters. In addition, the results of the study showed that the oyster mushroom is Pleurotin antibiotic, inhibits the activity of gram-positive bacteria. Mushrooms also contain 2 polysaccharit abalone has activity against tumors, simultaneously, mushrooms also contain folic acid, is essential for people suffering from anemia.
In Kien Giang, after a year of testing, showing abalone mushrooms grown on coir dust with good results. Agriculture sector Chau Thanh district, Kien Giang province has produced 1,000 bags of embryo testing, training for 20 farmers and workshop applications accepted technical results abalone mushroom growing on coir dust in 5 households . Starting embryo bags, farmers will receive technical process of care and watering pick mushrooms. During this time, the temperature and air humidity in the plant is kept constant by continuous irrigation and spraying (4-6 times / day). Time to harvest 7-10 days / times, each 3-4 round harvest. Subscribe to the economic and technical indicators, if applicable implement technical steps, productivity and crop yields will be high economic efficiency.
In process engineering applications abalone mushroom growing on coir dust in Chau Thanh District, Center for Applied Science and Technology advancement and Technology directly guide the technical process for farmers. However, because the first time receive a new technical process, farmers also overlooked some interesting stages as pasteurization, play wrapped, musty implants, … so prevalence is higher contaminants. In 1000 bags of embryos, with 828 bags for the collection of mushrooms with a total of 124 kg, the average yield mushrooms 150g / bag. Nguyen Van Khoe households and Huynh Duc Tai highest yield mushrooms 175-200g / strip workpiece. His lowest household Lam Van Danh, only obtained mushrooms 30g / bag. Notably, around 10% of households bag 2 embryos at Huynh Duc Tai and Nguyen Van Khoe high yielding mushroom around 250-300g / bag.
The life cycle of the oyster mushroom is like other fungi, starting ensure sexual spores, germinating for nutrition system silk thread and finally ear fungus; ear mushrooms make spores spawn and the cycle continues. Abalone fruiting body development in phases. Based on the ear mushroom shape that is called for each stage: coral shape, form drumstick, funnel-shaped, hemispherical form deviation, hyacinth leaf shapes. From the phase difference hemisphere hopper to change the substance, but from the stage into a hemispherical differences sheets have soared in volume. So harvesting abalone mushroom fungus should choose at just moved into a leaf.
In addition to nutritional factors, the environment greatly influence the growth and development of fungi, such as temperature, humidity, lighting, ventilation … Due to enzymatic hydrolysis system strong and diverse, abalone mushroom likely use hydratcarbon sources, particularly cellulose. Abalone mushroom is one of the few species capable of using lignin sources, especially during the beginning of the creation of fruiting body. Mushrooms are fungus common characteristic funnel shape deviation, round stalks. The underside has more blade flat mushroom caps, arranged perpendicular to the body, the spore-bearing extends down to the foot, fungal stalk near the base of the hair smooth. The floor plates are parts of the fungus. Took the mushroom cap is slightly concave in the middle, with different colors depending on the type and age of the mushroom fungi. Immature ear mushroom dark colors, dark but as adults become brighter color.
Engineer cultivation Nguyen Thi Thanh Van, Head of Agriculture and Forestry – Fisheries Chau Thanh district, Kien Giang province, said: “Growing abalone mushroom on coir dust not only contribute to solving environmental pollution in coir dust due to local causes but also contribute to increasing income for people from taking advantage of the vacant land around the house deserted. 1 bag of embryos (about 1-1.2 kg weight), if taken care of according to the process can produce products 250-300g abalone mushroom “. Investment costs for abalone mushroom 1kg 6-7 thousand. Mushroom products sold 12-15 thousand / kg, producers can profit 6-8 thousand / kg. So with 10,000 bags of coconut coir dust embryo can produce 2,000 kg of abalone mushrooms and for 12- 16 million profit.
The replication process on oyster mushroom production can cost coir dust in Chau Thanh district to help create new products for local, providing valuable food source of nutrition. On the other hand, the ability to develop and deploy the many farmers in the near future, the implementation of the subject also help leverage workforce harvest time, increase household income from the use agricultural byproducts.